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This paper offers a reconstruction of Xenocrates’ theory of indivisibles which would not commit him to the idea of ‘jerky motion’ ridiculed by Aristotle in Physica VI, yet would perfectly square with Plato’s Timaeus, the basis of Xenocrates’ canon. Relying on Alexander’s, Porphyry’s, and Themistius’s accounts of his theory, as well on detailed analysis of De lineis insecabilibus, I suggest that Xenocrates’ minima, contrary to what Aristotle implies, are not to be understood as more or less stable particulars, like tiny chunks of matter, moving about or leaping in physical space from point A to point B. Yet Xenocrates’ minima do remain ‘physical’ and ‘corporeal’ in a more Platonic sense of these words, not presupposing any kind of leaping, jumping, or jerking. This explains why Xenocrates associated the sensible realm with one of the three Fates, namely Clotho.
Merab Mamardashvili repeatedly mentions Ludwig Wittgenstein in his writings. But even when Mamardashvili does not refer to Wittgenstein directly, there is a recognizable echo of Wittgenstein in the thinking of the Russian philosopher. This article follows the closeness of their philosophical approaches to determine in what sense the school of transcendentalism is relevant to both philosophers, and to see how Mamardashvili displays his Wittgensteinian critique of the idea that consciousness is "put forward" to the world. Wittgenstein argued that the subject does not belong to the world, but to the boundary that forms this world. The similar idea we find in Mamardashvili. The latter writes that when we "speak of consciousness and not of anything else, we are speaking of such things for which it is impossible to show (substitute) their empirical and, by a finite number of operations, controllable equivalents. In turn, Wittgenstein compares consciousness to an eye that cannot see itself in its field of vision. Mamardashvili calls the same phenomenon "minimum-transcensus" and states that "it is impossible to pass continuously from empirical facts explained by theoretical concepts to those concepts by which they are explained, that is, to deduce them in a purely logical way. "Minimum-transcensus" belongs to the boundary of experience, so it cannot be found within experience itself, "put forward" within that which constitutes the objectivity and objective manifestation of our experience.
This paper tests the effectiveness of Burrow’s Delta Method on a corpus of selected prose writings in ancient Greek. When tested on a corpus of fourteen and eight authors, the method yields good results with relatively small samples (1000, 3000, and 5000 words) and different word frequency vectors (100, 200, 500 words), but its performance is worse with texts of similar genres (oratory, historical or medical writings). We conclude that it is the generic proximity that influences the results of classification most. However, in cases where confusion is more likely, such as the writings of Demosthenes and Aeschines, the method proves effective for shortlisting potential authors. Shortlists can give an adequate idea of a sample’s nearest neighbors while leaving some freedom for the researcher in interpreting the results.
This chapter deals with the medial and communicative functions of Soviet cinema during the interwar period. More specifically, it explores how the concept of Soviet viewership articulated within the framework of public discourse influenced the form of cinematic communication between the audience and the Soviet regime during the 1920s and 1930s. Giving a brief overview of the discussions on Soviet viewership during the 1920s, this paper next addresses the transformations, both on the level of the film industry and on the level of the cinematic message, brought to the Soviet film industry with the coming of sound. Special emphasis is paid to the history of sound recording technology and how new tools of expression expanded the ideological and political power of audiovisual media. Finally, this paper determines how the legacies of the avant-garde were appropriated by the cinema of Socialist Realism.
Review on: Erler, M., Heßler, J. E., Petrucci, F. M. (2021). Authorities and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 320 pages, ISBN: 978-1-108-84400-0.
Global transformation of academia under “new public management” and metrics-based assessment has brought forth intense debates on the governance of science. This study investigates key values and visions of academic governance in Russia through a set of focus groups with scientists plus a nationwide survey (n = 6,166) conducted in 2019. Russian scholars defy both state pressures and grassroots self-governance (due to fundamental distrust of peers); the preservation of privacy is their key concern. Finally, we present basic self-images of science (competitive, cooperative, and mobilizational) and point out the tensions between liberalism and democracy in post-Soviet academia.
The paper is devoted to the problem of continuity between the German post-Kantian theology of religious feeling and experience, from the one side, and the later science of religion (especially, history and psychology of religion), from the other. The main attention is paid to shifts in methodology, which are intended to make the study of religion as empirically justified and ‘impartial’ as possible. The Protestant post-Kantian theology was attentive to religious experience, this trait made possible its influence on the growing academical humanities in the German-speaking world. Religious experience in its historical and social context became a subject of the history of religion (Friedrich Max Müller endeavored to understand, by which spiritual laws does the feeling of infinite shape different religious traditions and mythologies). Religious experience considered through the structure of personality became in its turn a subject of psychology of religion (Gustav Vorbrodt tried to reconstruct, which psychological and even biological grounds determine the development of individual religious feeling). The emergence of the both existing disciplines would be impossible without relying on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s Sentimentalist view on religion.
Blockchain technologies loom large among the controversial topics of public debate. Like any
technology, blockchain offers various ways to imagine alternative models of politics and society.
Arguably, the most common interpretation treats it as the technology for techno-anarchism and
a tool for total decentralization. This paper focuses on an overlooked genealogy of the politics of
the blockchain – the classic republican theory. We consider whether republican practices could
shed light on certain aspects of blockchain communities and understand their governance better.
Our paper offers a historical analysis of governance visions inscribed in Bitcoin and Ethereum,
arguably the most influential applications.
A. Schumann, editor. Judgements and Truth. Essays in Honour of Jan Wole ´nski. London: College Publications, 2020. 334 pp., $19.00. ISBN 978-1848903494. Reviewed by E. Lisanyuk, St Petersburg State University, Petersburg 199034 Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, email@example.com, and National Research University Higher School of Economics, 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya St., 105066, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The volume assembles a remarkable topical diversity of papers collected on the occasion of the 80th anniversary of Professor Jan Wolenski’s (Jan Hertrich-Wole ´ nski), an eminent Pol- ´ ish analytic philosopher and logician, by his university colleague Andrew Schumann. The volume continues a tradition of academic birthday gifts and contains 13 essays authored by the contemporary researchers most of whom are from Poland, two from Brazil and one from Germany. The contributed papers were initially published as an issue of Studia Humana (9, 3/4, 2020).
Some are attracted to the view that repeatable artworks, such as films, novels, plays, symphonies, photographs, and the like, are a particular kind of abstracta—namely, types. This view, however, is not unproblematic. One of the most serious problems it faces is the so-called ‘Creation Problem.’ The core idea behind this problem is that, on the one hand, it seems reasonable to accept the claims that (1) repeatable artworks are types, (2) types cannot be created, and (3) repeatable artworks are created, but, on the other hand, these claims form an inconsistent triad. A popular solution to the Creation Problem is that (2) can be rejected because the justification for (2) is based on a false assumption—that no type can stand in causal relations. While this solution looks promising, it can be accepted only if its proponent can refute what might be called the ‘Paraphrasability Argument.’ On this argument, types are not to be regarded as capable of standing in causal relations, since any discourse implying the causality of types should be paraphrased into discourse that does not imply this. My aim in this essay is to show that there is good reason to consider the Paraphrasability Argument sound and, hence, that the foregoing solution to the Creation Problem fails.
In 1917–18, the new republican governments of Russia, Germany, and Austria nationalized their former court property. A monarchic-turned-national heritage of prestigious opera and dramatic theatres weighed heavily on national and regional budgets, prompting first attempts to create centralized forms of theatre governance. In a second wave of theatre reorganization in the mid-1930s, the Soviet government created ‘union theatres’ under a Committee for Arts Affairs; the German and Austrian theatres underwent the Nazi Gleichschaltung (1933–35 and 1938); and France, a ‘democratic outlier’, opted for nationalizing the Opéra and OpéraComique under the Réunion des théâtres lyriques nationaux. These conglomerates have so far been little studied as historically specific forms of theatre management, particularly from a comparative, trans-regime perspective. What balance can be struck between economic, political, and ‘artistic’ costs and benefits? How does ‘Baumol’s law’ of decreasing theatre profitability apply to these very different politico-economic systems, as well as to war economies? Dictatorships reveal an economic seduction power, while this essay argues for confirming a long-term ‘great European convergence’ of state-centred theatre management, internal structure, and accountability, both in peace and war. Here, the stated goals and shortterm contingencies yielded to trends originating from the logic of theatre production itself, and the compromises that the state, theatre professionals, and the public accepted in exchange for the capital of prestige. Alexander Golovlev (PhD, European University Institute in Florence, 2017) is a senior research fellow at the HSE Institute for Advanced Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies at the University of Moscow. His recent publications include, for NTQ, ‘Theatre Policies of Soviet Stalinism and Italian Fascism Compared, 1920–1940s’ (2019), and ‘Balancing the Books and Staging Operas under Duress: Bolshoi Theatre Management, Wartime Economy, and State Sponsorship in 1941–1945’, Russian History XLVII, No. 4 (2020).
This article publishes data obtained during the research of the Moscow film distribution from 1947 to 1950. Counting screening days by the method POPSTAT, this paper reflects the practices of film exhibition in postwar Moscow. The article consists of the description of collecting and processing quantitative data, publication of the results, and concluding remarks.
A considerable number of philosophers are attracted to what might be called ‘causal type-abstractionism’ — the view that photographs, symphonies, models of cars, novels, flags, and other multiply instantiable entities that are, or at least seem to be, artifacts are a particular kind of abstracta, namely causally efficacious types. Despite its popularity, however, causal type-abstractionism faces a problem: Given some plausible assumptions, it commits us to a seemingly unpalatable consequence — that there is widespread type-causal overdetermination, or, in other words, a multitude of situations where one and the same effect has two or more distinct independently sufficient causes, at least one of which involves type causation. Recently, a powerful solution to this problem has been offered by Juvshik (2018). Drawing upon the literature on mental causation, he argues that the foregoing consequence could be avoided without abandoning causal type-abstractionism — if we adopt a particular treatment of causes based on Yablo (1992, 1997)’s principle of proportionality. My primary goal in this essay is to show that the given solution fails. Additionally, I aim to sketch a solution that, I think, provides a promising type-abstractionist way to resolve the problem being discussed.
Intensive development of new media makes the discussion of their role in science increasingly relevant. Considering this perspective, one of the most important issues for public history is the question of transformation of a historian’s professional identity. In Russia, where public history as a sphere of intellectual work and practical activity is going through the process of formation, this issue has not yet received any full-fledged understanding. In our chapter, we attempt a pilot study of this subject using the examples of Russian history projects in Telegram – this platform has been rapidly gaining popularity in recent years, primarily among young Russian historians. According to our estimates, Telegram in the Russian media space plays a role similar to Twitter in English-speaking countries, and its popularity is growing every year. The emergence of history projects indicates a certain increase of interest in stepping outside the limits of professional communication and in launching the new public platforms to discuss history. Analysing this phenomenon is relevant for understanding the evolution of the role of a public historian in Russia. In particular, it allows us to ask questions about how people, who make history the subject of their professional studies, use new media for public communication; what attracts them to a certain media platform; what topics and forms of activity historians prefer to there.
Joachim Ritter’s classic work “The Big City” is devoted to a critical analysis of the philosophi- cal and theoretical position based on the negation of urban civiliza- tion. The work was written in the context of the increasing popularity of Martin Heidegger’s ideas, permeated by the cultural criticism of urban civilization. Rejection or “denunciation” of the city and its civilizational achievements is a distinctive feature of the philoso- phy of Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler and many other popular authors as well. This theoretical trend, which developed and strength- ened during the formation of modern society, Ritter opposes another philosophical line associated with Socrates and his “appeal to the city.” It was systematically devel- oped by Aristotle, who defined man as a “political (polis) animal”. It is only in the context of polis civilisation that man is able to become what he can be—a rational and free being. This Greek model of the polis, “limited by the inhumanity of slavery,” is becoming universal within modern society, a society that emerged in Europe but has long since transcended its limits. According to Ritter, the emergence of civilisation and modern urbanised society is the result of a fundamental discontinuity in relation to the past and the history of its origin (Herkunft).
In this article, the author examines the concept of truth by M. Heidegger in the light of social and epistemological issues. He believes that “truth as unconcealment” is a more productive approach than the theory of correspondence or coherence, since it is able to capture a number of socio-humanitarian concepts where verification is complicated. The author believes that Heidegger’s existential-historical thought about the “essence of truth” receives a logical continuation in the “esoteric initiative” or “sygetics”, which – if it is explicated in relation to the social attitudes and imperatives of the thinker – means the strategy of minimizing the public sphere and returning to one’s own. In relation to the institutional (re)production of knowledge, this means a chance for philosophy and scientific research to start a new existence on the other side of academic professional education, i.e. outside the modern university. Finally, Heidegger's concept of truth calls into question the scientistic image of science and philosophy and shows that the true knowledge cannot totally depend on the requirement of rational reconstruction of propositions.
*Реализация соц. сети Instagram запрещена на территории России по основаниям осуществления экстремистской деятельности.
Instagram remains a female social network: women consistently top the lists of the richest and most popular bloggers, women also make up more than half of the Instagram audience. This article will analyze the accounts of Russian female Instagram bloggers with an audience of millions, their visual and textual specificity. The research focuses on 22 Russian-language women's Instagram-blogs with an audience of more than 1 million followers with a pronounced thematic component. Using methods of case study and qualitative content analysis, we will examine how female role models are created and function in the Russian segment of the Instagram social network. The first part of the article will provide an overview of the theoretical concepts of the "role model" and then, using the material of 22 blogs, we will examine and analyze individual strategies for implementing four main role models: "ideal mother", "successful businesswoman", "benchmark woman" and "daring woman".
In this article the authors will try to answer the questions: how are female role models created and implemented in Instagram-blogs? How are visual and textual components connected when creating an "inspiring" female image? What are the specifics of Russian women's Instagram-blogs with an audience of millions? How do female bloggers broadcast traditional family values in order to win and retain subscribers? Can models of alternative femininity compete with traditional images of the "model woman" and the "ideal mother"?
The article presents an overview of the development of research on Western esotericism in the works of the younger generation of scientists in 2010-2021, the works of E. Asprem, Y. Strube, L. Saif are primarily distinguished. At the beginning, a general outline of the current state of esotericism research is given, then the analysis of the attitude of the younger generation to the works of the classics is carried out, the criticism of the main ideas of W. Hanegraaff. Then the critique of the category of Western esotericism is analyzed on three points: the construction of categories of Islamic esotericism, the artificiality of the opposition esotericism - occultism, the construction of the term "Western esotericism". It is demonstrated that the division into ethic and emic categories actually turns out to be conditional, and the modern conceptual foundations of theories rest in the esoteric teachings of the middle of the XIX century. The critique of the concept of esotericism as rejected knowledge is analyzed separately. Then an overview of the positive program of new generation of researchers is given, in which two directions are fixed: race and gender. In conclusion, a critical examination of the pros and cons of the program of the new generation of esotericism researchers is carried out. It is concluded that the criticism of the works of the classics presented by the new generation is successful and well-founded, but the fascination with postmodern theories often reduces the novelty of their works to defending neoliberal values, multiculturalism, racial and gender equality, deconstruction of large narratives.
This article is devoted to reconstruction, analysis and contextualization of a relatively little-known issue in history of interdisciplinary debates on the pictorial and the visual. According to some theories, pictorial representation is described through the model where the image substitutes its subject. It turns out that this idea, which at first glance seems to be nothing more than a convenient explanatory metaphor, contains a number of unexpected philosophical implications and directions for further development of this same idea. This is due to the fact that the concept of substitution allows one to step back from the usual idea of representation viewed as a similarity or a reference. Thus, the art historian Ernst Gombrich came to the methodologically productive idea of dominance of the visual function over form, using substitution as the framework of a polemic against more traditional theories of images. For his part, the analytical philosopher Kendall Walton extended Gombrich's observations to the original theory of art, in which representation is explained through the concepts of fiction, imagination and participation; in turn, the philosopher of perception Alva Noë proposed a concept that clarifies relationships between visual substitution, perceptual experience, and human cognitive abilities. This article also demonstrates that the concept of substitution is gaining special theoretical relevance due to its thematic proximity to the studies of recents decades, including those within the framework of visual studies, image theory and Bildwissenschaft. The author considers the most prominent examples of this proximity: discussions on the problems of pictorial presence, affective and irrational reactions to images, as well as Horst Bredekamp's concept, in which substitution is treated as one of the forms of image acts. It is demonstrated that the concept of visual representation as substitution turns out to be a rather productive theoretical tool that makes it possible to consider the factors, which are rarely mentioned side by side, that can be significant for the studies of visual imagery. The paper also reveals the features of considered account due to which it may be applied as complementary to other theories of depiction.