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Merab Mamardashvili repeatedly mentions Ludwig Wittgenstein in his writings. But even when Mamardashvili does not refer to Wittgenstein directly, there is a recognizable echo of Wittgenstein in the thinking of the Russian philosopher. This article follows the closeness of their philosophical approaches to determine in what sense the school of transcendentalism is relevant to both philosophers, and to see how Mamardashvili displays his Wittgensteinian critique of the idea that consciousness is "put forward" to the world. Wittgenstein argued that the subject does not belong to the world, but to the boundary that forms this world. The similar idea we find in Mamardashvili. The latter writes that when we "speak of consciousness and not of anything else, we are speaking of such things for which it is impossible to show (substitute) their empirical and, by a finite number of operations, controllable equivalents. In turn, Wittgenstein compares consciousness to an eye that cannot see itself in its field of vision. Mamardashvili calls the same phenomenon "minimum-transcensus" and states that "it is impossible to pass continuously from empirical facts explained by theoretical concepts to those concepts by which they are explained, that is, to deduce them in a purely logical way. "Minimum-transcensus" belongs to the boundary of experience, so it cannot be found within experience itself, "put forward" within that which constitutes the objectivity and objective manifestation of our experience.
This subchapter deals with the medial and communicative functions of Soviet cinema during the interwar period. More specifically, it explores how the concept of Soviet viewership articulated within the framework of public discourse influenced the form of cinematic communication between the audience and the Soviet regime during the 1920s and 1930s. Giving a brief overview of the discussions on Soviet viewership during the 1920s, this paper next addresses the transformations, both on the level of the film industry and on the level of the cinematic message, brought to the Soviet film industry with the coming of sound. Special emphasis is paid to the history of sound recording technology and how new tools of expression expanded the ideological and political power of audiovisual media. Finally, this paper determines how the legacies of the avant-garde were appropriated by the cinema of Socialist Realism.
Review on: Erler, M., Heßler, J. E., Petrucci, F. M. (2021). Authorities and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 320 pages, ISBN: 978-1-108-84400-0.
This article publishes data obtained during the research of the Moscow film distribution from 1947 to 1950. Counting screening days by the method POPSTAT, this paper reflects the practices of film exhibition in postwar Moscow. The article consists of the description of collecting and processing quantitative data, publication of the results, and concluding remarks.
This paper is dedicated to the historiography of New Cinema History. As an introduction to the cluster on Soviet spectatorship, this publication examines the ways of transferring the methods of New Cinema History to the history of the Soviet film industry.
The article examines the specific features of O.E. Mandelstam’s artistic and philosophical thought, the intellectual style of his poetry. For Mandelstam, poetry is a special form of man’s existence in the axiological horizon of culture, a form that becomes the content and task of creative work, including its civic resonance. The philosophical reinterpretation of Mandelstam’s legacy that the author proposes is linked to an understanding of his artistic work as a special form of spiritual experience, as an event in being, through which a verbal statement turns into an ideal artistic model of the world, that is, into a poetic work. Poetic consciousness has its being in the word, which is existentially colored and ethically intensive. The search for a whole, for a profound harmony, drives the poet’s intuitions and determines his means of perceiving and artistically representing thought-images.
On the basis of B. Constant’s ideas,this article discusses the possibility of studying religious feeling only as emotion and substantiates the superiority of this approach to the cognitive. The difficulties of the non-cognitive approach are mainly related to its fusion with the cognitive and can be overcome by a strict distinction between them. Religious feeling is thereby shown to be an ordinary emotion without any cognitive properties–only as a sensual stream that is specified by the particularities of its flow and its interactions with thought (and probably will). Its specificity as religious would be considered as the effect of such particularities and interactions.Further specification of this feeling–the differences among faith, religious hope, love, etc. – is proposed in the same manner, revealing and distinguishing nuances of its flow. In this way, religious feeling could be considered without mystification, and its nature would be understandable through the mechanism of consciousness. The whole of religion as reduced to religious feeling and consciousness would be accessible in its nature to the researcher while fully preserving its details as they occur in the believer’s consciousness.
Academic reviewing, one of the communal academic practices, is a vital genre, in which epistemic virtues have been cultivated. In our article, we discuss reviews as a form of institutionalized critique, which historians could use to trace the changing epistemic virtues within humanities. We propose to use them analogously to Lorraine Daston’s and Peter Galison’s treatment of atlases in their seminal work Objectivity as a marker of changing epistemic virtues in natural sciences and medicine. Based on Aristotle’s virtue theory and its neo-Aristotelian interpretation in the second half of the 20th century, as well as on its most recent applications in the field of history and philosophy of science, we propose a general conceptual framework for analyzing reviews in their historical dimension. Besides, we contend that the analysis of reviews should be carried out taking into account their historical context of social, political, cultural and media-environment. Otherwise, one may risks presupposing the existence of an autonomous, disconnected community of scholars.
Deliberative reasoning is widely used in various fields of human activity. In the modern information society, the use of methods of deliberative argumentation is associated with the development and use of appropriate application software, which is intended for visualization and modeling of intellectual activity to solve various types of practical problems, as well as argumentation. At the same time, various software designed for modeling and representation of argumentation explicitly or implicitly contains its conceptual grounds for argumentation. In this study, based on the identification of software intended for the simulation of deliberative reasoning, analysis of its purpose and main functions, the conceptual foundations of their functioning are determined, which is the initial stage for the formulation of a body of criteria for evaluating this software and its subsequent classification. The authors propose two preliminary independent classifications based on conceptual grounds, which are significant characteristics for the classification of the corresponding software.
Chernyshevsky and Dostoevsky: Together in Opposition
This paper examines the transformations of contemporary cultural policy in the Russian Federation on three basic levels: organizational, politico-discursive, and legislative. It also establishes the continuity and differences in that policy vis-à-vis the Soviet period. The principal thesis of this article is that the organizational behavior of the state sector of cultural policy currently seeks to reproduce the model that emerged in the final period of the USSR’s existence. State cultural organizations competing for state resources publicly demonstrate ritualistic ceremonial behavior in relation to political discourse and the established legal system, but at the same time avoid direct ideological instrumentalization of their activities, while seeking to support, update, and expand their network.
The notion of Ausersein/outbeing, proposed by Alexius Meinong, was for a long time in the shadow of the principle of the Ausersein of a pure object, which made it possible to make non-existent objects part of a judgment. This principle was adopted by many followers of Meinong within the framework of analytical philosophy, but the very concept of Ausersein was almost totally ignored. When it’s become an object of research, there appeared several interpretations of it. It was interpreted either as a way of describing the ontological status of non-existent objects, or as a basic property of all objects without exception. Dale Jacquette suggests interpreting Ausersein as extraontology, i.e. a metasemantic category that includes all items. In this article, we will analyse the arguments of modern interpreters of this notion and try to find out which interpretation is most correct.
The philosophical meaning of some ideas of modern ecology is revealed in this article, and the possibility of applying an extended ecological approach in scientific research, management and educational activities is substantiated. The heuristic character of the concept of ecosophy, introduced by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss and the French semiotician and psychiatrist Félix Guattari, is shown. It is argued that ecology today is not limited to the idea of coexistence and co-evolution of man and nature, but might be understood as an ecology of mind, of knowledge, of action, of communication, of management, and of education.
Schelling’s ›Erlangen Lectures‹ of 1820/21 (›Initia Philosophiae Universae‹) have a key position in his complete works. As a basic reflection on the nature of philosophy as a science, they combine transcendental, identity and ages of the world philosophy with the philosophy of mythology and revelation which was brought forth later in Munich and Berlin. This is the first publication of Schelling’s handwritten (and complexly structured) master copy of the lectures from the Berlin estate. It thus combines the edition of a previously unknown transcript as well as the text of the so-called Enderlein transcript (published by Horst Fuhrmann in 1969) in a new transcription and finally the version of the lectures in the ›Sämmtlichen Werken‹. The texts are correlated systematically in a synopsis and made accessible through comprehensive editorial reports as well as text-critical and annotating apparatuses. Indexes and a bibliography conclude the volume.
Hegel’s Philosophy of Right is not a philosophy of the state—it is a philosophy of the world. This means that the rights of persons, the responsibilities of subjects, the freedoms of individuals and groups, the sovereignty of states, must be thought in relation to the history of the world as a whole. But these are neither merely present in the world, like fish in the sea; nor simply absent therefrom; rather, tertium datur, they are implied therein. Thus, implication—which is the essence of speculative logic, and the grammar of being—shows itself to be how right is in the world, which implies another way of speaking and thinking, acting and being, if right is to be right.
Almost all philosophers (and many non-philosophers) recognize the fundamental importance of the Phenomenology of Spirit... But Hegel's way of thinking and speaking — which he names, “speculative” —needs explaining. The example of “the speculative sentence” is helpful — for here, speculating means implying, that is, neither bringing meaning to presence nor keeping it in absence; but rather, speaking and thinking by implication. If the history of philosophy, however, overlooks what is implied, then it cannot grasp what is, and what is thought and said in the speculative sentence. Luckily, there is another way: implying that which can neither be said nor left unsaid, neither thought nor unthought. Reinterpreting Hegel's speculative sentence, therefore, for implication, for what is implied — and neither present nor absent — Haas demonstrates how to think and speak speculatively about thinking and speaking, substance and subject, being and becoming, whether in philosophy or not,
Alexander Michailowskis (Moskau) Interesse gilt von Heidegger her einer Technikhermeneutik, die zugleich über die Verfassung des gegenwärtigen Weltalters und der Protagonisten im gegenwärtigen Weltspiel reflektiert. Neben Europa werden insbesondere China und Russland thematisiert. Die Heideggersche Technikphilosophie ist Michailowski zufolge Prototyp einer solchen Hermeneutik; wobei sie gleichermaßen weit von optimistischen und pessimistischen Festlegungen entfernt sei. Sie sensibilisiere vielmehr für eine auch politisch unterrichtete Wachsamkeit auf das Künftige
This article focuses on the development of anti-digital protests among Orthodox fundamentalists and conservatives in Russia. Its aim is to reveal the main trends of these protests and the ideas that inspire them. It covers the period from the late 1990s to 2020, beginning from the early protest against the introduction of electronic means of personal data control, the use of barcodes and taxpayer identification numbers (VATIN – value added tax identification number) and ending with the reaction of Orthodox movements to the digitization initiatives of the state authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. We show that although the anti-digital protest is mainly associated with fundamentalism and the most conservative movements in Russian Orthodoxy, which are largely based on archaic or “traditional” values, the
representatives of such groups in recent years have increasingly turned to the values of freedom and even to the human rights discourse that is widespread in the West. We also discover two clusters in modern Russian Orthodoxy: one (the main base of anti-digital protests) is focused on the physical mediation of interaction with the transcendent, and the other on the intellectual and ethical understanding of religion. Representatives of the former cluster are much less worried about the introduction of digital technologies; indeed, they even welcome the use of online technologies in religious practice.
This editorial introduction at once surveys and makes an intervention into the main problematics of the volume, charting an unorthodox trajectory of German Idealism as a political-theological thinking of nothingness, immanence, and world-(de)legitimation -- and a key genealogical resource for the present and future of political theology.
A. Schumann, editor. Judgements and Truth. Essays in Honour of Jan Wole ´nski. London: College Publications, 2020. 334 pp., $19.00. ISBN 978-1848903494. Reviewed by E. Lisanyuk, St Petersburg State University, Petersburg 199034 Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, firstname.lastname@example.org, and National Research University Higher School of Economics, 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya St., 105066, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com.
The volume assembles a remarkable topical diversity of papers collected on the occasion of the 80th anniversary of Professor Jan Wolenski’s (Jan Hertrich-Wole ´ nski), an eminent Pol- ´ ish analytic philosopher and logician, by his university colleague Andrew Schumann. The volume continues a tradition of academic birthday gifts and contains 13 essays authored by the contemporary researchers most of whom are from Poland, two from Brazil and one from Germany. The contributed papers were initially published as an issue of Studia Humana (9, 3/4, 2020).